Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. Table sugar, granulated sugar, or regular sugar, refers to sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose.
Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Compound sugars, also called disaccharides or double sugars, are molecules composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond. Common examples are sucrose (table sugar) (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (two molecules of glucose). In the body, compound sugars are hydrolysed into simple sugars.
Longer chains of monosaccharides are not regarded as sugars, and are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Starch is a glucose polymer found in plants, and is the most abundant source of energy in human food. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar.
Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants. Honey and fruit are abundant natural sources of unbounded simple sugars. Sucrose is especially concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Maltose may be produced by malting grain. Lactose is the only sugar that cannot be extracted from plants. It can only be found in milk, including human breast milk, and in some dairy products. A cheap source of sugar is corn syrup, industrially produced by converting corn starch into sugars, such as maltose, fructose and glucose.

Sucrose is used in prepared foods (e.g. cookies and cakes), is sometimes added to commercially available processed food and beverages, and may be used by people as a sweetener for foods (e.g. toast and cereal) and beverages (e.g. coffee and tea). The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year, with North and South Americans consuming up to 50 kilograms (110 lb) and Africans consuming under 20 kilograms (44 lb). As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar, especially refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results, mainly because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, and encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.

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  1. kaneohegirlinaz

    Recipe Small Batch Meyer Lemon Sherbert

    There's a restaurant in my Mom's hometown that serves Meyer Lemon Ice Cream, she loves it! My Mother gifted me an electric Ice Cream Maker for my birthday a few years back and I've been playing around with it. I prefer Sherbert over Ice Cream. I like Meyer Lemons because they're much sweeter...
  2. kaneohegirlinaz

    Recipe Meyer Lemon Curd

    I love Meyer Lemons as they're not as tart as a Lisbon Lemon that are commonly found in Supermarkets. I use this recipe as a filling for Lemon Meringue Pie and Lemon Bar Cookies. My Meyer Lemon Curd This recipe makes approximately 2 pints Ingredients: 12 Egg Yolks 2 C. granulated Sugar 6...
  3. TastyReuben

    Recipe Candied Orange Peel

    Candied Orange Peel Makes about 20 servings Ingredients 4 large navel oranges or 5 small 2 cups water 1 ½ cups granulated sugar divided 1 teaspoon vanilla extract ½ teaspoon salt Directions Trim the tops and bottoms of the oranges. Then use a vegetables peeler to peel the oranges from top to...
  4. FowlersFreeTime

    Baking with sugar substitutes?

    So, interesting thing happened yesterday. I made a banana bread with a sugar substitute which claims to be 1 for 1 replacement for brown sugar, but the results I didn't expect were: When creaming the butter and "sugar" together, the mixture was thicker and perhaps even "drier" than I'm used to...
  5. caseydog

    Hershey's Zero Sugar Options

    When I was staying with my sister earlier this year, she had some Hershey's Zero Sugar Milk Chocolate, Reece's Peanut Butter Cups, and York Peppermint Patties. Wow! I hate sugar-free foods and beverages because of the aftertaste of sugar substitutes, but these candies tasted exactly like the...
  6. mjd

    Recipe Brown Sugar Caramel Cheesecake

    MJ's notes: A friend sent this to me. Let's call it like we see it. This is a heart attack waiting to happen. Might as well be yummy if it's gonna take you out! ;-) Brown Sugar Caramel Cheesecake YIELD: 16 SERVINGS INGREDIENTS FOR THE CRUST: 1/2 cup (60g) all-purpose flour 1/4 teaspoon...
  7. mjd

    Recipe Brown Sugar Balsamic Barbecue Sauce

    Brown Sugar Balsamic Barbecue Sauce Prep Time: 20 minutes Cook Time: 30 minutes Servings: Yield: 100 servings Source: INGREDIENTS 1 large red onion, diced 6 cloves minced garlic 3 tbsp olive oil 1 large apple thinly sliced 8 large very ripe diced tomatoes with the skins...
  8. A

    Replacing Butternut Squash with Sweet Potato to reduce sugar

    I have this recipe below and want to make it healthier. If I were to change the butternut squash to sweet potato how would you suggest adjusting the other ingredients? Butternut Squash Cake Buy about 400g sliced butternut squash Put it in pot with cold water and bring to boil. Pre heat oven...
  9. flyinglentris

    Sweet Things - Syrups and Sugars

    Molasses, Powdered or Confectioner's Sugar, Brown Sugar, Agave Syrup, Maple Syrup and Honey
  10. Sweet Stuff

    Sweet Stuff

    Sweet Stuff
  11. flyinglentris

    Chocolates, Butterscotch, Caramels, Sugar, etc. etc.

    It seems to me that there is no topic for Chocolates, Butterscotch, Caramels, Sugar, Confections, etc. Should there be? Sweets and Deserts? Yes. I see it now. Ignore this post.
  12. TastyReuben

    Recipe Buttermilk Pumpkin Pie W/ Brown Sugar Cream

    BUTTERMILK PUMPKIN PIE W/ BROWN SUGAR CREAM Makes 1 9-inch pie Ingredients Dough: 2 cups AP flour 2 sticks (1 cup) cold unsalted butter, cut into pieces 1 tsp sugar 1/2 tsp salt 5 TBsp cold water Filling: 16oz canned pumpkin (not pumpkin pie filling) 1 cup buttermilk 1/2 cup heavy whipping...
  13. LissaC

    Recipe Homemade, low sugar white chocolate

    This recipe is expensive to make, but has a lot less sugar than store bought white chocolate. Because it has less sugar and less milk powder it tastes more like cocoa, it's a bit different from the white chocolate you usually buy. - 40g cocoa butter - 40g milk powder (I used powdered coconut...
  14. Raw beaten egg with sugar.jpeg

    Raw beaten egg with sugar.jpeg

  15. Windigo

    Recipe Spice cookies

    Makes at least 24 cookies with a small cookie cutter. -175 g self raising flour -175 caster sugar -125 g butter (soft) - 2 tbsp almond shavings - 1 tsp cinnamon, 1 tsp ginger, 1 tsp nutmeg, 1/2 tsp salt & fresh grated black pepper Cream the butter with the sugar, and spices, then add the flour...
  16. J

    Curry sauce made using raw cane sugar

    Does anyone know of a curry sauce that I could buy made without the use of white sugar. e.g. it might contain raw cane sugar or jaggery.
  17. C

    Recipe Brown Sugar and Bourbon Ribs

    This recipe was made exactly 10 years ago today. In my notes, I could not stop talking about how good they smelled cooking and how good they tasted. I also said this - "they just seem to say Autumn to me. Apple butter, apple cider, cinnamon stick" Brown Sugar and Bourbon Ribs BASTING SAUCE...
  18. Homemade Zabaione.

    Homemade Zabaione.

  19. Nightmare before puff pastry.jpeg

    Nightmare before puff pastry.jpeg

  20. SatNavSaysStraightOn

    Recipe Vegan Coconut Sugar & Maple Syrup Coated Almonds

    I have finally managed to make something involving a honey substitute for the The CookingBites Recipe Challenge: Honey. It has taken me a while to say the least! I have to confess that you need your act together on this recipe. It is best if you don't let the almonds go cool after they have...
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